The City of Baguio (Ilokano: Ciudad ti Baguio; Filipino: Lungsod ng Baguio) is a highly urbanized city in northern Luzon in thePhilippines. Baguio City was established by Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. Baguio City was designated by the Philippine Commission as the Summer Capital of the Philippines on June 1, 1903 and incorporated as a city by thePhilippine Assembly on September 1, 1909. Baguio is the seat of government of the Cordillera Administrative Region. The name of the city is derived from the word bagiw in Ibaloi, the indigenous language of the Benguet Region, meaning 'moss'. The city is at an altitude of approximately 1500 meters (5100 ft) in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive to the growth of mossy plants and orchids. Baguio City has become the center of business and commerce as well as the center of education in the entire Northern Luzon.According to the 2007 census, Baguio City has a population of 301,926.
The City of Baguio celebrated its Centennial on September 1, 2009. The celebrations marked the first 100 years of the Baguio City Charter, which was authored by former Philippines Supreme Court Justice George A. Malcolm. Baguio City is also the Ghost Capital of the Philippines.[
The region around Baguio was first settled primarily by the Kankana-eys and the Ibalois. In the nearby town of La Trinidad, Benguet, Spaniards established a commandante or military garrison, although Kafagway, as Baguio was once known, was barely touched. In 1901Japanese and Filipino workers hired by the Americans built Kennon Road, the first road directly connecting Kafagway with the lowlands of Pangasinan. Before this, the only road to Kafagway was Naguilian Road. On September 1, 1909 Baguio was declared a chartered city. The famous American architect Daniel Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners, laid a meticulous plan for the city in 1904. His plan was, nevertheless, realized only to a small extent, primarily due to growth of the city well beyond its initial planned population of 25,000 people. The Americans earlier declared Baguio the Summer Capital of the Philippines on July 1, 1903 and The American Residence as the residence of the American governor-general to escape Manila's summer heat. They further developed Baguio, building parks and public structures such as Wright Park in honor of Governor General Luke E. Wright, Burnham Park in honor of Baguio city planner Daniel Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and Session Road.
On April 26, 1945, Filipino troops of the 2nd, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 1st Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL 66th Infantry Regiment and the American troops of the 33rd and 37th Infantry Division of the United States Army was entered Baguio City and fought against the Japanese Imperial Army forces led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita which started the Battle for the Liberation of Baguio City during World War II.
Baguio is the site of the formal surrender of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi. It is where they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High Commissioner's Residence (now the United States Ambassador's Residence) in Camp John Hay on September 3, 1945, marking the end of World War II.
A very strong (Ms = 7.8) earthquake destroyed most of Baguio on July 16, 1990. A significant number of buildings and infrastructure were damaged, major highways were temporarily severed, and a number of houses were leveled or severely shaken with a significant loss of life. Some of the fallen buildings were built on or near fault lines. Baguio City was rebuilt, however, with the aid from the national government and various international donors like Japan, Singapore and other countries.
Around May 2003, a petition initiated by Dion Fernandez to declare Baguio a heritage zone was circulated on the Internet and national print media, gaining more than 10,000 signatures. The petition calls upon unspecified officials to create the Zone prior to the Baguio centennial in 2009. In May 2005, the Heritage Conservation Society(HCS) submitted to the Baguio City Council a proposed Special Heritage Bill drafted by HCS Trustee Ivan Henares. It has been approved on second reading but is being opposed by a group of businessmen